Publications Summary

Document Type
Methodological Reports
Publication Topic(s)
Survey Methodology, Data Quality, Analysis
Recommended Citation
Mahmoud Elkasabi, Ruilin Ren, and Thomas W. Pullum. 2020. Multilevel Modeling Using DHS Surveys: A Framework to Approximate Level-Weights. DHS Methodological Reports No. 27. Rockville, Maryland, USA: ICF.
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Publication Date
August 2020
Publication ID


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This report responds to the demand from The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program data users for sampling weights that correspond to each stage of sampling in DHS surveys. Such weights, described as level-weights, are required for multilevel modeling with data from complex surveys that involve multistage sampling, unequal sampling probabilities, and stratification. Like most survey datasets available for public use, level-weights are not included in DHS data because of concerns about disclosure risk. This report develops and illustrates a framework for estimating or approximating level-weights in DHS surveys. The proposed framework requires data that is included in the publicly available DHS datasets and final reports. The same framework can be used to approximate level-weights for other household surveys, such as the Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS).


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