Citing DHS Publications
The recommended citations for individual survey and analytical publications are provided on each publication’s web page, as well as inside the title page of each report.
Citation information can also be downloaded in two ways:
Guidance on Using Downloadable Citations from The DHS Program
The DHS Program has always published recommended citations inside the front cover of reports. However, EndNote and other reference software do not recognize some of elements of The DHS Program's standard recommended citation. Therefore the reference data provided on the DHS website will not, in some cases, match the recommended citations presented in the print copies of DHS reports. Users are welcome to use either format. However, users of the downloadable citations data should be aware that some elements should be reviewed carefully after importing into reference software. These include:
Accuracy of citations is ultimately the responsibility of the user.
Other DHS resources should be cited as follows:
ICF. “Page title.” The DHS Program website. Funded by USAID. http://www.dhsprogram.com. [Accessed Month, Day, Year].
ICF, 2012. The DHS Program STATcompiler. Funded by USAID. http://www.statcompiler.com. [Accessed Month, Day, Year].
ICF, 2012. The DHS Program Mobile App. Funded by USAID (Version 3.7.1). Computer software. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com. [Accessed Month, Day, Year].
Spatial Data Repository:
ICF. The DHS Program Spatial Data Repository. Funded by USAID. spatialdata.dhsprogram.com. [Accessed Month, Day, Year].
For a single dataset, the citation should be based on the citation used in the final report, but with a number of additions:
For example, for the 2016 Timor-Leste DHS recode data set, use a citation such as:
General Directorate of Statistics [Timor-Leste], Ministry of Finance [Timor-Leste], and ICF. 2018.
Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2016 [Dataset]. TLIR71.DTA. Rockville, Maryland: General Directorate of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, and ICF [Producers]. ICF [Distributor], 2018.
Multiple Datasets (more than 3) from multiple countries:
ICF. 2004-2017. Demographic and Health Surveys (various) [Datasets]. Funded by USAID. Rockville, Maryland: ICF [Distributor].
If the recode manual is used, that should be referenced separately, as should other documents that are used.
Questions or Comments?
Please post in the Publications thread of the DHS User Forum. You can also read more about Citing DHS Publications in our blog.