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Prevalence and factors associated with HIV testing among young women in Ghana
Authors: Mainprice Akuoko Essuman, Hidaya Mohammed, Martha Suntah Kebir, Comfort Obiribea and Bright Opoku Ahinkorah
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases , Volume 24; DOI:
Topic(s): HIV testing
Women's health
Country: Africa
Published: APR 2024
Abstract: Background: HIV/AIDS is a global health challenge and continues to threaten lives in sub-Saharan African countries such as Ghana. One of the important interventions for controlling its transmission is through testing and receiving medication. In this study, we present findings on the prevalence and factors associated with HIV testing among young women in Ghana. Methods: We used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey comprising young women aged 15–24 years. We calculated the proportion of these young women who have ever been tested for HIV. The multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the determinants of HIV testing at a 95% confidence interval (CI), and adjusted odds ratio (aORs) and p-values were reported. All analyses were adjusted using survey weights to account for unequal sampling probabilities. Results: The results showed that 31.4% (95% CI [29.63, 32.81]) of young women in Ghana had tested for HIV. The odds of HIV testing were likely to be higher among young women aged 20–24 (aOR?=?2.24, 95% CI [1.75, 2.87]), those who were pregnant (aOR?=?3.17, 95% CI [2.03, 4.95]) and those with one (aOR?=?7.99, 95% CI [5.72, 11.17]), two (aOR?=?10.43, 95% CI [6.47, 16.81]) or three or more children (aOR?=?14.60, 95% CI [8.37, 25.48]) compared to their counterparts in the reference category. Women who had attained secondary education or higher (aOR?=?2.66, 95% CI [1.67, 4.23]), were sexually active (aOR?=?2.82, 95% CI [2.00, 3.97]), and in richer (aOR?=?1.98, 95% CI [1.17, 3.34]) and richest wealth index (aOR?=?1.99, 95% CI [1.10, 3.61]) were more likely to test for HIV than those with no formal education, who had not had sex before or in the poorest wealth index. Women from the Eastern (aOR?=?1.69, 95% CI [1.04,2.72]) and Upper East regions (aOR?=?2.62, 95% CI [1.44, 4.75]) were more likely than those in the Western region to get tested for HIV. However, the odds of testing for HIV were lower among women belonging to other religions (aOR?=?0.43, 95% CI [0.23,0.82]) than Christians. Conclusion: The findings show that HIV testing is low among young women in Ghana. To address this issue, it is recommended that both government and non-governmental organizations collaborate to create effective programmes and strategies. These may include continuous health education, regular sensitization programs and making HIV testing services much more accessible and affordable, taking into consideration the sociodemographic characteristics of young women.