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Relative effects of climate factors and malaria control interventions on changes of parasitaemia risk in Burkina Faso from 2014 to 2017/2018
Authors: Nafissatou Traoré, Taru Singhal, Ourohiré Millogo, Ali Sié, Jürg Utzinger and Penelope Vounatsou
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases , Volume 24, DOI:
Topic(s): Climate
Insecticidetreated mosquito nets (ITNs)
Spatial analysis
Country: Africa
  Burkina Faso
Published: FEB 2024
Abstract: Background: In Burkina Faso, the prevalence of malaria has decreased over the past two decades, following the scale-up of control interventions. The successful development of malaria parasites depends on several climatic factors. Intervention gains may be reversed by changes in climatic factors. In this study, we investigated the role of malaria control interventions and climatic factors in influencing changes in the risk of malaria parasitaemia. Methods: Bayesian logistic geostatistical models were fitted on Malaria Indicator Survey data from Burkina Faso obtained in 2014 and 2017/2018 to estimate the effects of malaria control interventions and climatic factors on the temporal changes of malaria parasite prevalence. Additionally, intervention effects were assessed at regional level, using a spatially varying coefficients model. Results: Temperature showed a statistically important negative association with the geographic distribution of parasitaemia prevalence in both surveys; however, the effects of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) use was negative and statistically important only in 2017/2018. Overall, the estimated number of infected children under the age of 5 years decreased from 704,202 in 2014 to 290,189 in 2017/2018. The use of ITNs was related to the decline at national and regional level, but coverage with artemisinin-based combination therapy only at regional level. Conclusion: Interventions contributed more than climatic factors to the observed change of parasitaemia risk in Burkina Faso during the period of 2014 to 2017/2018. Intervention effects varied in space. Longer time series analyses are warranted to determine the differential effect of a changing climate on malaria parasitaemia risk.