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Family planning needs to limit childbearing are unmet, yet our parity is high: characterizing and unveiling the predictive factors
Authors: A. S. Adebowale and M. E. Palamuleni
Source: BMC Women's Health, Volume 23, Article 492; DOI:
Topic(s): Contraception
Family planning
Race and ethnicity
Reproductive health
Rural-urban differentials
Country: Africa
Published: SEP 2023
Abstract: Background The unmet need for limiting childbearing (UNLC) remains a problem in Nigeria. Conception after four pregnancies is considered a high-risk pregnancy. We examined the level, reasons for non-use of contraception, and predictors of UNLC among high parity (=?4 live birth) women in Nigeria. Methods This cross-sectional design study was based on the analysis of nationally representative weighted data (2018 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey). The study focused on high-parity women of reproductive age (n?=?4260) who do not want to have any more children irrespective of the number of their surviving children. Multi-stage cluster sampling approach was used for sample selection. Data were analyzed using logistic regression (a0.05). Results Mean age of the respondents and children ever born was 38.92?±?5.7 and 6.54?±?2.3 respectively. The prevalence of UNLC was 40.9%, higher in the rural (48.8%) than urban (32.8%) areas, highest among women with no formal education (52.0%), higher among Muslims (48.4%) than Christians (34.8%), highest in the North-West (51.7%) and least in the South-East (26.1%). The most reported reasons for non-use of family planning (FP) were; respondents opposed (25.0%), infrequent sex (15.0%), fatalistic (13.2%), husband/partner opposed (11.2%), fear of side effects/health (8.5%), and religious prohibition (3.3%). The odds of UNLC was 100% higher among women aged 40–49 years compared to the younger women in age group 20–29 years. Living in the rural area predisposes high parity women of reproductive age to higher risks of UNLC (OR?=?1.35, 95% C.I?=?1.14–1.59, p?