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Sociodemographic factors associated with anemia among reproductive age women in Mali; evidenced by Mali malaria indicator survey 2021: spatial and multilevel mixed effect model analysis
Authors: Gosa Mankelkl and Beletu Kinfe
Source: BMC Women's Health, 23
Topic(s): Anemia
Spatial analysis
Women's health
Country: Africa
Published: MAY 2023
Abstract: Introduction: Anemia is a severe global public health problem that threatens human health as well as social and economic development in both developing and developed nations. Anemia is a significant public health issue because; it affects people from all backgrounds. Anemia affected about one-third of non-pregnant women, 41.8% of pregnant women, and more than a quarter of the world’s population. Any stage of a woman’s life might result in anemia, due to physiological factors, infections, hormonal imbalances, pregnancy related complications, genetic factors, nutritional deficiency and environmental factors. Mali is a developing country with substantial anemia prevalence, particularly in the developing areas. In order to reduce anemia among women of reproductive age, the Mali government worked to enhance preventative and integrative interventions. One of the government’s objectives is to reduce the prevalence of anemia in order to decrease maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from Mali Malaria Indicator Survey 2021 datasets. The study comprised a total of 10,765 reproductive-age women. Spatial and multilevel mixed effect analysis, chi-square, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were employed on determinant factors of anemia among reproductive age women in Mali. Finally, the percentage and odd ratio, its 95% confidence intervals, and the result of spatial analysis were reported. Results: This study includes a total weighted sample of 10,765 reproductive-age women from Mali Malaria Indicator Survey 2021. The prevalence of anemia was 38%. Of them, 1.4%, were severely anemic, while 23.5% and 13.1% were moderately and mildly anemic, respectively in Mali. In the spatial analysis, the spatial distribution of anemia showed that a higher proportion of anemia found in southern and south west region of Mali. The northern and north east region of Mali had a low of proportion of anemia. being youngest age [20,21,22,23,24] years [ AOR?=?0.817; 95% CI = (0.638,1.047); P?=?0.000], attending higher education [AOR?=?0.401; 95% CI= (0.278,0.579); P?=?0.000], being male headed household [AOR?=?0.653; 95% CI= (0.536,0.794); P?=?0.000] and being richest [AOR?=?0.629; 95% CI= (0.524,0.754) P?=?0.000] were protective factors for anemia among reproductive age women. In contrast to this, living in rural area [ AOR?=?1.053; 95% CI = (0.880,1.260); P?=?0.000], being animist religion follower [AOR?=?3.10; 95% CI= (0.763,12.623) P?=?0.04], using unimproved drinking water sources [AOR?=?1.117; CI= (1.017,1.228); P?=?0.021} and using unimproved toilet facility [AOR?=?1.018; CI= (0.917,1.130); P?=?0.041} were considered as the risk factors for anemia among reproductive age women. Conclusion: In this study, anemia was linked to socio-demographic characteristics, and there were regional variations in the frequency of anemia among women of reproductive age. The most important measures to prevent anemia among women of reproductive age in Mali included empowering women to have higher levels of education, raising the wealth index, rise in awareness of improved drinking water sources and toilet facilities, spreading anemia education through religiously acceptable routes, and using an integrated approach to prevention and intervention in high-prevalent regions of the country.