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Geographical disparities and determinants of infant mortality in Ethiopia: mapping and spatial analysis using EDHS data
Authors: Berhanu Awoke Kefale, Ashenafi Abate Woya, Abay Kassa Tekile, Getasew Mulat Bantie and Gizachew Yismaw Wubetu
Source: BMC Pediatrics, 23
Topic(s): Infant mortality
Spatial analysis
Country: Africa
Published: MAY 2023
Abstract: Background: Infant mortality remains a public health challenge in Ethiopia. Exploring infant mortality will aid in tracking the progress toward achieving sustainable development goals. Objective: The study aimed to explore the geographical variations and associated factors of infant mortality in Ethiopia. Method: A total of 11,023 infants from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data were extracted and included in the analysis. EDHS used a two-stage cluster sampling design with a census enumeration area as the primary sampling unit and households as the secondary sampling unit. Arc GIS software was used for spatial analysis using clusters for exploring geographical variations in infant mortality. A binary logistic regression was employed using R software to identify the significant determinants of infant mortality. Results: The study revealed that the spatial distribution of infant mortality was non-random in the country. Infants whose mothers not receiving ANC (AOR?=?1.45; 95%CI: 1.17, 1.79), not breastfed status (AOR?=?3.94; 95%CI: 3.19, 4.81), poor wealth index (AOR?=?1.36; 95%CI: 1.04, 1.77), male infants (AOR?=?1.59; 95%CI: 1.29, 1.95), birth order of six or above (AOR?=?3.11; 95%CI: 2.08, 4.62), small birth size (AOR?=?1.27; 95%CI: 1.26, 1.60), birth spacing [(=?24 months (AOR?=?2.29; 95%CI: 1.79, 2.92), 25–36 months (AOR?=?1.16; 95%CI: 1.12, 1.49)], multiple births (AOR?=?6.82; 95%CI: 4.76, 10.81), rural residence (AOR?=?1.63; 95%CI: 1.05, 2.77) and regions [Afar (AOR?=?1.54; 95%CI: 1.01, 2.36), Harari (AOR?=?1.56; 95%CI: 1.04, 2.56), and Somali (AOR?=?1.52; 95%CI: 1.03, 2.39)] were the determinants of infant death in Ethiopia. Conclusions: There is a great geographical disparity in infant mortality rates across regions. Afar, Harari, and Somali regions were verified as hot spot areas. ANC usage, breastfed status, wealth index, sex of the infant, birth order, birth size, birth spacing, birth type, residence, and region were the determinants of infant death in Ethiopia. Therefore, appropriate interventions need to be implemented in the hot spots to alleviate the risk factors for infant mortality.