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Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported HIV testing among adolescent girls and young women in Rwanda: evidence from 2019/20 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey
Authors: Alfred Musekiwa, Patricia Silinda, Assanatou Bamogo, Halima S. Twabi, Mohanad Mohammed, Jesca Mercy Batidzirai, Zvifadzo Matsena Zingoni, Geoffrey Chiyuzga Singini, Maureen Moyo, Nobuhle Nokubonga Mchunu, Theodora Ijeoma Ekwomadu, Portia Nevhungoni and Innocent Maposa
Source: BMC Public Health, Volume 22, issue 1281; DOI:
Topic(s): HIV testing
Women's health
Country: Africa
Published: JUL 2022
Abstract: Background: HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem globally. The majority of people living with HIV are from Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) aged 15-24 years. HIV testing is crucial as it is the gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, and care; therefore this study determined the prevalence and factors associated with self-reported HIV testing among AGYW in Rwanda. Methods: We conducted secondary data analysis on the AGYW using data extracted from the nationally representative population-based 2019/2020 cross-sectional Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). We described the characteristics of study participants and determined the prevalence of HIV testing and associated factors using the multivariable logistic regression model. We adjusted all our analyses for unequal sampling probabilities using survey weights. Results: There were a total of 5,732 AGYW, with the majority (57%) aged 15-19 years, 83% were not living with a man, 80% were from rural areas, 29% were from the East region, and 20% had a history of pregnancy. Self-reported HIV testing prevalence was 55.4% (95%CI: 53.7 to 57.0%). The odds of ever having an HIV test were significantly higher for those aged 20-24 years (aOR 2.87, 95%CI: 2.44 to 3.37); with higher education (aOR 2.41, 95%CI:1.48 to 3.93); who were rich (aOR 2.06, 95%CI:1.57 to 2.70); with access to at least one media (aOR 1.64, 95%CI: 1.14 to 2.37); who had ever been pregnant (aOR 16.12, 95%CI: 9.60 to 27.07); who ever had sex (aOR 2.40, 95%CI: 1.96 to 2.95); and those who had comprehensive HIV knowledge (aOR 1.34, 95%CI: 1.17 to 1.54). Conclusions: We report an unmet need for HIV testing among AGYW in Rwanda. We recommend a combination of strategies to optimize access to HIV testing services, especially among the 15-19 years adolescent girls, including facility-based testing, school and community outreach, awareness campaigns on HIV testing, and home-based testing through HIV self-testing.