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Mapping BCG vaccination coverage in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2019
Authors: Kendalem Asmare Atalell, Mulat Asrade Alemayehu, Nahom Worku Teshager, Getaneh Mulualem Belay, Tewodros Getaneh Alemu, Degefaye Zelalem Anlay, Amare Wondim & Kefyalew Addis Alene
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases , Volume 22, issue 569; DOI:
Topic(s): Immunization
Spatial analysis
Country: Africa
Published: JUN 2022
Abstract: Introduction: The Bacille-Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination remains the primary strategy to prevent severe disseminated TB in young children, particularly in high TB-burden countries such as Ethiopia. Accurate knowledge of vaccination coverage in small geographical areas is critically important to developing targeted immunization campaigns. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal distributions and ecological level determinants of BCG vaccination coverage in Ethiopia. Method: Bacille-Calmette–Guerin immunization coverage and geographical information data were obtained from five different Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2019. Data for independent variables were obtained from publicly available sources. Bayesian geostatistical models were used to predict the spatial distribution of BCG vaccination coverage in Ethiopia. Result: The overall national BCG vaccination coverage between 2000 and 2019 was 65.5%. The BCG vaccine coverage was 53.5% in 2000, 56.9% in 2005, 64.4% in 2011, 79.6% in 2016, and 79.0% in 2019. BCG vaccination coverage increased by 47.6% in Ethiopia from 2000 to 2019, but substantial geographical inequalities in BCG coverage remained at sub-national and local levels. High vaccination coverage was observed in northern, western, and central parts of Ethiopia. Climatic and demographic factors such as temperature, altitude, and population density were positively associated with BCG vaccination coverage. Whereas, healthcare access factors such as distance to health facilities and travel time to the nearest cities were negatively associated with BCG vaccine coverage in Ethiopia. Conclusion: Despite substantial progress in national BCG vaccination coverage, marked spatial variation in BCG coverage persists throughout the country at sub-national and local levels. Healthcare access and climatic and demographic factors determined the spatial distribution of BCG vaccination coverage. Maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage across geographical areas is important to prevent TB in Ethiopia.