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Using the Ghana malaria indicator survey to understand the difference between female and male-headed households and their prevention and testing for malaria among children under 5
Authors: Daniel Iddrisu and Cheryl A. Moyer
Source: Malaria Journal, Volume 21, issue 112; DOI:
Topic(s): Health equity
Household headship
Country: Africa
Published: APR 2022
Abstract: Background: Globally, 94% of malaria deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, and children under age 5 account for 70% of malaria-related mortality in the region. This study sought to examine differences between female-headed households (FHHs) and male-headed households (MHHs) with regard to malaria prevention and testing among children under age 5 (U5) in Ghana. Methods: This cross-sectional study used publicly available data from the 2019 Ghana Malaria Indicator Survey (GMIS). Frequencies and descriptive statistics were calculated for all key variables. Bivariate analyses comparing FHHs and MHHs were conducted using t tests and Chi-square analysis. A P value of 0.05 was taken for statistical significance. Results: Five thousand one hundred and eighty one household were identified, of which 1938 (37.4%) were female-headed and 3243 (62.6%) were male-headed. 51.7% of FHHs included a child U5, whereas 67.8% of MHHs included a child U5. MHHs were significantly more likely to own an ITN than FHHs (83.1% vs. 78.3%, P?