Back to browse results
Determinants of optimal breastfeeding practices in Indonesia: findings from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey
Authors: Siti Nurokhmah , Setyaningrum Rahmawaty , and Dyah Intan Puspitasari
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, DOI :
Topic(s): Breastfeeding
Country: Asia
Published: JAN 2022
Abstract: Objectives: Understanding the factors influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed their infants is essential to formulate effective breastfeeding interventions. This study explored the determinants of optimal breastfeeding indicators in Indonesia. Method: We used the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey to analyze factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and continued breastfeeding at 1 (CBF-1) and 2 years (CBF-2). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine bio-demographic, socio-cultural, and behavioral characteristics associated with breastfeeding after considering the survey design effect. Results: The risk of delayed breastfeeding initiation was higher among infants who were born smaller, first-born children, were delivered via cesarean delivery, and did not have immediate skin-to-skin contact (p<0.01). Infant's age, birth pattern, household wealth index, and the mother's occupation and smoking status were predictors of EBF (p<0.05). CBF-1 was less common among first-time mothers and those working in the non-agricultural sector, mothers from wealthier families, and mothers who had cesarean deliveries (p<0.01). Infant's age was negatively associated with CBF-2 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.99). Mothers attending college were less likely to practice CBF-2 than those with no education or primary education (AOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.26-0.77). The absence of postnatal visits was a risk factor for CBF-1 and CBF-2 (p<0.05). Conclusions: Breastfeeding interventions in Indonesia should pay particular attention to at-risk groups such as women from wealthier families, working outside the agricultural sector, and with a higher education level. Nutrition-sensitive programs (e.g., postnatal care and smoking cessation) should also be encouraged.