|Identifying the latent classes of modifiable risk behaviours among diabetic and hypertensive individuals in Northeastern India: a population-based cross-sectional study|
||Strong P. Marbaniang, Hemkhothang Lhungdim, Holendro Singh Chungkham
||BMJ Open, DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053757
||Objective: To identify the latent classes of modifiable risk factors among the patients with diabetes and hypertension based on the observed indicator variables: smoking, alcohol, aerated drinks, overweight or obesity, diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesised that the study population diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension is homogeneous with respect to the modifiable risk factors.
Design: A cross-sectional study using a stratified random sampling method and a nationally representative large-scale survey.
Setting and participants: Data come from the fourth round of the Indian National Family Health Survey, 2015-2016. Respondents aged 15-49 years who were diagnosed with either diabetes or hypertension or both were included. The total sample is 22 249, out of which 3284 were men and 18 965 were women.
Primary and secondary outcome measures: The observed variables used as latent indicators are the following: smoking, alcohol, aerated drinks, overweight or obesity, diabetes and hypertension. The concomitant variables include age, gender, education, marital status and household wealth index. Latent class model was used to simultaneously identify the latent class and to determine the association between the concomitant variables and the latent classes.
Results: Three latent classes were identified and labelled as class 1: 'diabetic with low-risk lifestyle' (21%), class 2: 'high-risk lifestyle' (8%) and class 3: 'hypertensive with low-risk lifestyle' (71%). Class 1 is characterised by those with a high probability of having diabetes and low probability of smoking and drinking alcohol. Class 2 is characterised by a high probability of smoking and drinking alcohol and class 3 by a high probability of having high blood pressure and low probability of smoking and drinking alcohol.
Conclusions: Co-occurrence of smoking and alcohol consumption was prevalent in men, while excess body weight and high blood pressure were prevalent in women. Policy and programmes in Northeastern India should focus on targeting multiple modifiable risk behaviours that co-occur within an individual.