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R.E.S.P.e.c.T and intimate partner violence: a cross-sectional study using DHS data in Kenya
Authors: Caleb L. Ward and Sioban Harlow
Source: BMJ Open, DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046069
Topic(s): Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
Country: Africa
Published: SEP 2021
Abstract: Background: Thirty per cent of all women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the WHO's novel R.E.S.P.E.C.T framework and IPV among women in Kenya. Methods: We used the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Only women selected for the domestic violence module and who were married/living with their partner were eligible for this study (n=3737). We created a summary score for the strategies denoted by R.E.S.P.T based on availability of questions addressing these strategies in the KDHS, and a total score that summed responses across all strategies. Each letter was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between R.E.S.P.T scores and IPV. Results: All strategies except for E lowered the odds of IPV. Decision-making (R) was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.62 (0.53 to 0.72)). Land and property ownership (E) were positively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=1.25 (1.08 to 1.43)). Access to healthcare (S) was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.55 (0.48 to 0.63)). Higher levels of wealth (P) were negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.47 (0.37 to 0.62)). Not justifying wife-beating in any scenario (T) was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.39 (0.29 to 0.53)). After adjusting for demographics, a 1-unit increase in total R.E.S.P.T score was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (AOR=0.63 (0.57 to 0.70)) with a similar finding for IPV in the past 12 months (AOR=0.59 (0.53 to 0.66)). Younger women, higher education and Muslim religion were associated with decreased odds of experiencing IPV while living in a rural location and working were associated with increased odds of experiencing IPV. Conclusions: Our study provides initial evidence that by using the multistrategy R.E.S.P.E.C.T framework, countries can dramatically lower the odds of women experiencing IPV. IPV prevention strategies must have a wide approach. The DHS can be used as a tool to monitor implementation and efficacy of this novel strategy.