Back to browse results
Associations of forms of intimate partner violence with low birth weight in India: findings from a population-based Survey
Authors: Mostafizur Rahman, Helal Uddin, Lutfun Nahar Lata, and Jalal Uddin
Source: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, DOI:
Topic(s): Birth weight
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
Country: Asia
Published: JUN 2021
Abstract: Background: Many studies report a significant association between a lifetime measure of intimate partner violence (IPV) and low birth weight (LBW) in low-income and economically developed countries. However, it remains relatively unclear how different forms of IPV affect LBW in low-income countries. This study examines the associations of various forms of IPV with two measures of birth outcomes - LBW and birth weight in India. Methods: This study used the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) 2015–2016 data of India. The analysis included 11,423 women aged 15–49 years. Using both logistic and linear regression analyses, we assessed the associations of various forms of IPV with binary and continuous measures of birth weight. The analysis controlled for several potential covariates. Results: In fully-adjusted regression models, women who experienced any IPV, compared to those who had not experienced any IPV, were 1.19 times (95% CI: 1.02–1.37) as likely to give birth to an LBW baby. Compared to those who had not experienced any physical violence (PV), women who experienced any PV were 1.16 times (95% CI: 1.00–1.35) as likely to have an LBW baby. Moreover, compared to those who had not experienced any emotional violence (EV), women who experienced any EV were 1.29 times (95% CI: 1.06–1.56) as likely to have LBW babies. Linear regression analysis found that any IPV exposure was associated with a significant decrease in birth weight in the fully-adjusted model (b = -32.39; 95% CI: -63.39 to -1.73). Further, experience of any PV (b = -28.40; 95% CI: -60.13 to 3.36) and any EV (b = -51.69; 95% CI: -93.97 to -9.42) appear to be negatively associated with a continuous measure of birth weight. Conclusion: Findings have implications for public health policies and interventions that protect women from exposure to intimate partner violence for ensuring better maternal health and birth outcomes.