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The roles of women empowerment on attitude for safer sex negotiation among Indonesian married women
Authors: Gusti Ngurah Edi Putra, Tashi Dendup, and Pande Putu Januraga
Source: Women & Health, DOI:
Topic(s): Contraception
Sexual health
Women's health
Women’s empowerment
Country: Asia
Published: OCT 2020
Abstract: The situation of low women empowerment in household settings might influence women’s attitude and ability to negotiate for protected sex in their marital relationship. This study aimed to investigate the association between women empowerment factors and the attitude for safer sex negotiation among Indonesian married women. The secondary data of 28,934 individual records of married women retrieved from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) was used. The dependent variable was the attitude for safer sex negotiation measured by women’s acceptance toward a justification to ask her husband to use a condom if her husband has a sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate logistic regression analysis accounting for the complex survey design was performed. The results showed that women empowerment factors, that include higher level of education and participation in household decision-making had a positive effect on women’s attitude for protected sex. Those women with higher levels of HIV knowledge and whoever talked about HIV with their husbands were also more likely to justify for protected sex. Therefore, women empowerment through education, improving socioeconomic conditions, and increasing HIV-related knowledge can help develop a positive attitude and enable women to negotiate for safer sex with their partners.