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Epidemiological investigation and management of bloody diarrhea among children in India
Authors: Rahul Bawankule, Sadanand Shetye, Ashish Singh, Abhishek Singh, and Kaushalendra Kumar
Source: PLoS ONE , 14(9): e0222208; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222208
Topic(s): Child health
Country: Asia
Published: SEP 2019
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The evidence on the factors associated with childhood bloody diarrhea in developing countries in general and India, in particular, is somewhat limited. Our study, therefore, examines-the prevalence of bloody diarrhea; the magnitude of treatment of bloody diarrhea (use of both oral rehydration and antibiotics (pills, syrups, and injections)); and several other associated factors with bloody diarrhea in the youngest children under five years in the Indian context. METHODS: We used data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-4 conducted in 2015-16. We used a multivariable binary logistic regression model to identify the factors associated with bloody diarrhea. We also applied a multinomial logistic regression model to identify associated factors with the treatment of bloody diarrhea amongst the youngest children below five years. FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of bloody diarrhea in the youngest children was about 9 percent in the last two weeks preceding the survey. There was a significant difference in the mean age of those children having bloody diarrhea and watery diarrhea during the same period. Children whose stools were disposed of unsafely and those who belonged to households with neither a place nor water for washing hands were more likely to suffer from bloody diarrhea compared to their counterparts with these facilities. About a little less than one-fifth of the youngest children (16%) received adequate treatment of bloody diarrhea. The treatment of bloody diarrhea was associated with the health facility and maternal and children's socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: The study shows that household environmental risk factors are important predictors of bloody diarrhea amongst the youngest children. Still, 28% of those children did not receive any treatment of bloody diarrhea in India. There is also a clear need to promote the practice of safe disposal of children's stools and handwashing among mothers and children. Mothers need to be sensitized about the necessity of an immediate visit to a health facility/center in case of bloody diarrhea.