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Prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices among children aged 6–23?months in India: a regional analysis
Authors: Mansi Vijaybhai Dhami, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Uchechukwu L. Osuagwu, and Kingsley E. Agho
Source: BMC Public Health, 19(1): 1-16; DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7360-6
Topic(s): Child feeding
Child health
Children under five
Nutrition
Country: Asia
  India
Published: DEC 2019
Abstract: Background Inappropriate complementary feeding practices significantly contribute to undernutrition among children under 2 years of age in India. However, there is limited up-to-date evidence on the prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices to guide policy actions at the subnational level in India. We investigated the regional prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices in India. Methods This study used a sample of 69,464 maternal responses from the 2015–16 National Family Health Survey in India. The prevalence of complementary feeding indicators was estimated using data for each administrative region, namely: North (n?=?8469), South (n?=?12,828), East (n?=?18,141), West (n?=?8940), North-East (n?=?2422) and Central (n?=?18,664). Factors associated with complementary feeding by region in India were investigated using logistic regression Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Models (GLLAMM) with a logit link and binomial family that adjusted for clustering and sampling weights. Results The study showed a wide variation in the prevalence of introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods (complementary foods) among infants aged 6–8?months in regional India; highest in the South (61%) and lowest in the Central and Northern regions (38%). Similarly, minimum dietary diversity (MDD) was highest in the South (33%) and lowest in the Central region (12%). Both minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) varied substantially across the regions. The factors associated with complementary feeding practices also differed across Indian regions. Significant modifiable factors associated with complementary feeding practices included higher household wealth index for the introduction of complementary foods in the North and Eastern India; higher maternal education for MMF and MDD in the North and Central regions; and frequent antenatal care visits (=4 visits) for all indicators but for different regions. Conclusion Our study indicates that there are wide differences in regional prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices in India. The improvement of complementary feeding practices in India would require national and sub-national efforts that target vulnerable mothers, including those with no education and limited health service contacts.
Web: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-019-7360-6