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Sex differences in prevalence and associated factors of prehypertension and hypertension among Bangladeshi adults
Authors: Gulam Muhammed Al Kibria, Vanessa Burrowes, Allysha Choudhury, Atia Sharmeen, and Krystal Swasey
Source: International Journal of Cardiology Hypertension, 1: 100006; DOI: 10.1016/j.ijchy.2019.100006
Topic(s): Gender
Country: Asia
Published: MAY 2019
Abstract: Globally, complications of raised blood pressure are fundamental public health issues. There has been limited research if prevalence and risk factors vary by sex in many countries, including Bangladesh. We stratified the prevalence and associated factors of prehypertension and hypertension according to sex in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study analyzed the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011 data. After estimating prevalence according to sex, multilevel logistic regression was applied to obtain associated factors. This study analyzed data of 3876 males and 3962 females aged =35 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 19.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.0–21.0) among males and 31.9% (95% CI: 30.1–33.6) among females. Among both males and females, prevalence and odds of hypertension increased with age, overweight/obesity, diabetes, upper wealth status, and residence in some divisions. Education level was a significant positive correlate of hypertension for males only. Males and females had similar prevalence of prehypertension, 27.2% (95% CI: 25.6–28.8) and 27.6% (95% CI: 26.0–29.2), respectively. Characteristics such as older age, overweight/obesity, and diabetes were associated with higher prevalence and odds of prehypertension among females; prehypertension among males was associated with advancing age, overweight/obesity, education level, wealth status, and division of residence. In Bangladesh, almost half of the males and females could have increased risks of complications resulting from hypertension and prehypertension. Addressing the characteristics associated with higher prevalence or odds of these conditions is crucial. Several common risk factors indicate that a common prevention and control strategy could work for both sexes.