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Relative household wealth and non-fatal road crashes: analysis of population-representative data of Kenyan adults
Authors: Kraemer JD
Source: Journal of Public Health, fdy089; DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy089
Topic(s): Wealth Index
Country: Africa
Published: MAY 2018
Abstract: Background: This study aims to examine potential road crash disparities across relative wealth and location of residence in Kenya by analyzing population-representative Demographic and Health Survey data. Methods: Relative wealth was measured by household assets, converted into an index by polychoric principal components analysis. Location and sex-stratified associations between wealth quantiles and crashes were flexibly estimated using fractional polynomial models. Structural equation models were fit to examine whether observed differences may operate through previously identified determinants. Results: In rural areas, crashes were least common for both the poorest men (-5.2 percentage points, 95% CI: -7.3 to -3.2) and women (-1.6 percentage points, 95% CI: -2.9 to -0.4). In urban areas, male crashes were lowest (-3.0 percentage points, 95% CI: -5.2 to -0.8) among the wealthiest, while they peaked in the middle of the female wealth distribution (2.0 percentage points, 95% CI: 0.3-3.8). Male differences operate partially though occupational driving and vehicle ownership. Urban female differences operate partially through household vehicle ownership, but differences for rural women were not explained by modeled determinants. Conclusions: Relative wealth and road crash have opposite associations in rural and urban areas. Especially in rural areas, it is important to mitigate potential unintended effects of economic development.