|Expanding the scope beyond mortality: burden and missed opportunities in maternal morbidity in Indonesia|
||Widyaningsih V., Khotijah, and Balgis
||Global Health Action, 10(1):1339534. doi: 10.1080/16549716.2017.1339534.
||Background: Indonesia still faces challenges in maternal health. Specifically, the lack of information on community-level maternal morbidity. The relatively high maternal healthcare non-utilization in Indonesia intensifies this problem.
Objective: To describe the burden of community-level maternal morbidity in Indonesia. Additionally, to evaluate the extent and determinants of missed opportunities in women with maternal morbidity.
Methods: We used three cross-sectional surveys (Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey, IDHS 2002, 2007 and 2012). Crude and adjusted proportions of maternal morbidity burden were estimated from 43,782 women. We analyzed missed opportunities in women who experienced maternal morbidity during their last birth (n = 19,556). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regressions were used to evaluate the determinants of non-utilization in IDHS 2012 (n = 6762).
Results: There were significant increases in the crude and adjusted proportion of maternal morbidity from IDHS 2002 to IDHS 2012 (p < 0.05). In 2012, the crude proportion of maternal morbidity was 53.7%, with adjusted predicted probability of 51.4%. More than 90% of these morbidities happened during labor. There were significant decreases in non-utilization of maternal healthcare among women with morbidity. In 2012, 20.0% of these women did not receive World Health Organization (WHO) standard antenatal care. In addition, 7.1% did not have a skilled provider at birth, and 25.0% delivered outside of health facilities. Higher proportions of non-utilization happened in women who were younger, multiparous, of low socioeconomic status (SES), and living in less-developed areas. In multilevel analyses, missed opportunities in healthcare utilization were strongly related to low SES and low-resource areas in Indonesia.
Conclusion: The prevalence of maternal morbidity in Indonesia is relatively high, especially during labor. This condition is amplified by the concerning missed opportunities in maternal healthcare. Efforts are needed to identify risk factors for maternal morbidity, as well as increasing healthcare coverage for the vulnerable population.
KEYWORDS: Maternal morbidity, missed opportunity, maternal health, determinants, sociodemographic