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Paternal Factors Associated with Neonatal Deaths and Births with Low Weight: Evidence from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007
Authors: Zakar R, Zakar MZ, Aqil N, and Nasrullah M.
Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(7):1634-42. doi: 10.1007/s10995-015-1674-5.
Topic(s): Birth weight
Neonatal mortality
Country: Asia
Published: JUL 2015
Abstract: We aimed to discern paternal factors associated with neonatal deaths and births with low weight, independent of maternal and other socio-demographic factors. We analyzed the nationally representative sample of 5,724 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who delivered their last child during the past 5 years preceding the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007. We assessed adverse birth outcomes using two variables i.e. neonatal deaths (<28 days) and small size births (as a proxy for birth weight). Associations between paternal factors and adverse birth outcomes were assessed by calculating unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models after controlling for maternal and socio-demographic factors. The analysis was performed by using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 17. About 4.5 % mothers reported neonatal deaths and 34 % had small size births (SSB). We found that fathers involved in manual occupation were more likely to have neonatal deaths than fathers involved in managerial/professional jobs (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.64; 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.01, 3.55). Similarly, fathers who belonged to poorer wealth index had higher risk of SSB (aOR: 1.62; 95 % CI 1.18, 2.22). Additionally, consanguinity was a major risk factor which was associated with neonatal deaths (aOR: 1.73; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.74) and SSB (aOR: 1.25; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.55). Fathers' occupation including unemployment and consanguinity were associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. Further studies are warranted to discern other paternal risk factors related to adverse birth outcomes