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Low intake of vitamin A–rich foods among children, aged 12–35 months, in India: association with malnutrition, anemia, and missed child survival interventions.
Authors: Semba RD ; de Pee S ; Sun K ; Campbell AA ; Bloem MW ; Raju V
Source: Nutrition , 2010 Oct; 26(10): 958-62; DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2009.08.010
Topic(s): Anemia
Child health
Children under five
Vitamin A
Country: Asia
Published: OCT 2010
Abstract: Abstract: Objective: To determine whether children in India who have a low intake of vitamin A–rich foods are at higher risk of malnutrition, anemia, and not receiving child health interventions. Methods: We analyzed data from the India National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006. Results: Of 17 847 children (41.9%), aged 12–35 months, 7020 did not receive vitamin A–rich foods, based on 24-h recall. The prevalence of stunting, severe stunting, underweight, and severe underweight among children who did and did not receive vitamin A–rich foods was, respectively, 52.5% versus 59.0%, 26.7% versus 32.9%, 43.8% versus 48.5%, and 17.9% versus 21.6% (all P <0.0001). Children who did not receive vitamin A–rich foods were more likely to be anemic, not have completed childhood immunizations, and not to have received vitamin A supplementation in the previous 6 mo (all P <0.0001). Maternal education of =10, 7–9, and 1–6 y, respectively, compared with no formal education was associated with the child receiving vitamin A–rich foods (odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.20–1,67, P <0.0001; odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.37, P =0.01; odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.32, P =0.02) in a multivariate logistic regression model adjusting for maternal age, household size, socioeconomic status, and location. Conclusion: Children who did not receive vitamin A–rich foods were more likely to be malnourished and to have missed basic child health interventions, including vitamin A supplementation. Children were more likely to receive vitamin A–rich foods if their mothers had previously achieved higher primary or secondary education levels.