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Determinants of apparent rural-urban differentials in measles vaccination uptake in Indonesia
Authors: Fernandez RC, Awofeso N, Rammohan A.
Source: Rural and Remote Health, 11 (online), 2011: 1702.
Topic(s): Immunization
Maternal health
Rural-urban differentials
Country: Asia
Published: SEP 2011
Abstract: Introduction: Regional differences in vaccination uptake are common in both developed and developing countries, and are often linked to the availability of healthcare services and socioeconomic factors. In 2007, 0.9 million eligible Indonesian children missed measles vaccination, and 19 456 cases of measles were documented among Indonesian children. The authors investigated rural–urban differentials in measles vaccination coverage among young Indonesian children, and sought to identify key factors influencing the probability of a child receiving the first dose of measles vaccination in Indonesia. Methods: Data used in the analyses were sourced from the nationally representative Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2007. The influence of location of residence, household wealth, maternal and paternal education, total children ever born and use of skilled birth attendants on measles vaccination coverage was investigated using bivariate analysis and chi-square tests. The independent effects of these variables were established using binomial logistic regression analysis. Results: Indonesia’s 2007 first-dose measles national vaccination coverage was, at 72.8%, lower than the 2008 global first-dose measles vaccination average coverage of 82%. Bivariate analysis revealed that the first-dose measles vaccination coverage in rural areas of Indonesia was 68.5%, compared with 80.1% in urban regions (p<0.001). The apparent significance of rural residence in impairing vaccination coverage was marginal after controlling for the sex of the child, maternal age, maternal and paternal education, wealth, and access to skilled health workers. Conclusion: Apart from sustainable initiatives to increase measles vaccination coverage globally, it is important to close the rural–urban gap in Indonesia’s measles vaccination uptake. Addressing critical determinants of inferior measles vaccination coverage in Indonesia’s rural regions will facilitate major improvements in Indonesia’s child health trends. This article suggests initiatives for addressing three of such determinants in Indonesia’s rural areas: poverty, parental education and access to skilled health workers.