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Inputs to quality: supervision, management, and community involvement in health facilities in Egypt, 2004
Authors: Emily J Cherlin , Adel A Allam , Erika L Linnander , Rex Wong , Essam El-Toukhy , Heather Sipsma , Harlan M Krumholz , Leslie A Curry and Elizabeth H Bradley
Source: BMC Health Services Research, 2011, 11:282 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-282
Topic(s): Health equity
Country: Africa
Published: NOV 2011
Abstract: Background As low- and middle-income countries experience economic development, ensuring quality of health care delivery is a central component of health reform. Nevertheless, health reforms in low- and middle-income countries have focused more on access to services rather than the quality of these services, and reporting on quality has been limited. In the present study, we sought to examine the prevalence and regional variation in key management practices in Egyptian health facilities within three domains: supervision of the facility from the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP), managerial processes, and patient and community involvement in care. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 559 facilities surveyed with the Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA) survey in 2004, the most recent such survey in Egypt. We registered on the Measure Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) website ( to gain access to the survey data. From the 559 MOHP facilities sampled by the ESPA, we excluded a total of 79 facilities because they did not offer facility-based 24-hour care or have at least one physician working in the facility, resulting in a final sample of 480 facilities. The final sample included 76 general service hospitals, 307 rural health units, and 97 maternal and child health and urban health units (MCH/urban units). We used standard frequency analyses to describe facility characteristics and tested the statistical significance of regional differences using chi-square statistics. Results Nearly all facilities reported having external supervision within the 6 months preceding the interview. In contrast, key facility-level managerial processes, such as having routine and documented management meetings and applying quality assurance approaches, were uncommon. Involvement of communities and patients was also reported in a minority of facilities. Hospitals and health units located in Urban Egypt compared with more rural parts of Egypt were significantly more likely to have management committees that met at least monthly, to keep official records of the meetings, and to have an approach for reviewing quality assurance activities. Conclusions Although the data precede the recent reform efforts of the MOHP, they provide a baseline against which future progress can be measured. Targeted efforts to improve facility-level management are critical to supporting quality improvement initiatives directed at improving the quality of health care throughout the country.