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Anthropometric failures and its predictors among under five children in Ethiopia: multilevel logistic regression model using 2019 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data
Authors: Aznamariam Ayres, Yeshimebet Ali Dawed, Shambel Wedajo, Tilahun Dessie Alene, Alemu Gedefie, Fekadeselassie Belege Getahun and Amare Muche
Source: BMC Public Health, Volume 24; DOI:
Topic(s): Children under five
Country: Africa
Published: APR 2024
Abstract: Background: Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) combines all three forms of anthropometric failures to assess undernutrition status of children. There is no study on CIAF to identify the real and severe form of under nutrition among Ethiopian children that addressed community level factors. So, this study determined CIAF and identified important factors which helps to design appropriate intervention strategies by using multi-level advanced statistical model. Methods: The study included 5,530 under five children and utilized a secondary data (EMDHS 2019) which was collected through community-based and cross-sectionally from March 21 to June 28, 2019. Composite index of anthropometric failure among under five children was assessed and a two-stage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Descriptive summary statistics was computed. A multi-level binary logistic regression model was employed to identify important predictors of CIAF in under five children. Adjusted odds ratio with its 95% CI was estimated and level of significance 0.05 was used to determine significant predictors of CIAF. Results: The prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was 40.69% (95% CI: 39.41, 42.00) in Ethiopia. Both individual and community level predictors were identified for CIAF in under five children. Among individual level predictors being male sex, older age, short birth interval, from mothers who have not formal education, and from poor household wealth quintile were associated with higher odds of CIAF among under five children. Low community women literacy and being from agriculturally based regions were the community level predictors that were associated with higher odds of CIAF in under five children in Ethiopia. Conclusions: The burden of composite index of anthropometric failure in under five children was high in Ethiopia. Age of child, sex of child, preceding birth interval, mother’s education, household wealth index, community women literacy and administrative regions of Ethiopia were identified as significant predictors of CIAF. Therefore, emphasis should be given for those factors to decrease the prevalence of CIAF in under five children in Ethiopia.