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Menstrual and reproductive factors associated with risk of breast cancer among Indian women: a cross sectional study from National Family Health Survey, 2019-21
Authors: Ujjwal Das, Sabita Soren and Nishamani Kar
Source: Archives of Public Health, Volume 82; DOI:
Topic(s): Reproductive health
Women's health
Country: Asia
Published: APR 2024
Abstract: Background: The breast cancer is common cancer in women globally. The risk of breast cancer is strongly associated with women’s menstrual and reproductive factors that have been established in different countries. Therefore present study was aim to explore the association between menstrual and reproductive factors and the risk of breast cancer screening in Indian women. Methods: The present study data has been used fifth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-V) with 724,115 women in aged 15–49 in 2019-21. The self-reported ever screened of breast cancer for women aged 30–49 was the main outcome variable of the study. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer by menstrual and reproductive factors adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Late menarche (OR?=?2.20, 95% CI: 1.48–3.28), irregular menstrual cycle (OR?=?1.29, 95% CI: 1.08–3.53)), delay age at first birth (OR?=?1.93, 95% CI: 1.11–3.04) and contraceptive pill used (OR?=?1.11, 95% CI: 0.74–2.10) were significantly associated to increases the uptake of screening breast cancer. While, a higher number of birth (OR?=?0.52, 95% CI: 0.10–1.03), and long duration of breast-feeding practice (OR?=?0.75, 95% CI: 0.63–0.91) were reduced to participate for screening breast cancer. Conclusion: The results of the study confirm the role of menstrual and reproductive factors in breast cancer in Indian women. Therefore, our findings are imperative for developing breast cancer prevention strategies and better preparedness. Creating awareness and providing knowledge on cancer could be key strategies for the reduction of breast cancer in Indian reproductive age group women.