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Household environment associated with anaemia among children aged 6–59 months in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of Ethiopia demographic and health survey (2005–2016)
Authors: Biniyam Sahiledengle, Lillian Mwanri and Kingsley Emwinyore Agho
Source: BMC Public Health, Volume 24; DOI:
Topic(s): Anemia
Water supply
Country: Africa
Published: JAN 2024
Abstract: Background: Anaemia continues to be a major public health challenge globally, including in Ethiopia. Previous studies have suggested that improved household environmental conditions may reduce anaemia prevalence; however, population-level evidence of this link is lacking in low-income countries. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the association between environmental factors and childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. Methods: In this study, we conducted an analysis of the data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS), a nationally representative population-based survey conducted in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2016. The study included a total of 21,918 children aged 6–59 months. Children were considered anemic if their hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was less than 11.0 g/dl. To examine the association between environmental factors and anemia, we used multilevel mixed-effect models. These models allowed us to control for various confounding factors including: child, maternal, household and community-level variables. The study findings have been reported as adjusted odds ratios (AORs) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at a significance level of p?