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Factors contributing to socio-economic inequality in utilization of caesarean section delivery among women in Indonesia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey
Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Shobhit Srivastava, Pratishtha Chaudhary, and T. Muhammad
Source: PLOS ONE , Volume 18, Issue 9; DOI:
Topic(s): Cesarean section
Maternal health
Country: Asia
Published: SEP 2023
Abstract: Background Most of the existing literature in developing countries focused on either the rising trend of CS or its determinants. There is a paucity of population-based studies on existing socioeconomic inequalities in availing CS services by women in Indonesia. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with caesarian section (CS) delivery and explore the various factors contributing to inequalities in CS delivery rates in Indonesia. Methods The study utilized nationally representative cross-sectional data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS), 2017. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to find the factors associated with CS delivery. Concentration index and Wagstaff’s decomposition analysis were used to examine the socioeconomic inequalities in CS delivery among women and associated factors. Results About 17% of women in Indonesia delivered babies through CS. A concentration index of 0.31 in CS delivery rate showed a higher CS delivery rate among women belonging to rich households. About 44.7% of socioeconomic status inequality in CS delivery was explained by educational status among women who went for CS delivery. Women’s place of residence explained 30.1% of socioeconomic inequality, and women’s age at first birth explained about 11.9% and reporting ANC visits explained 8.4% of the observed inequality. Highest socioeconomic inequality was witnessed in central Sulawesi (0.529), followed by Maluku (0.488) and West Kalimantan (0.457), whereas the lowest was recorded in Yogyakarta (0.021) followed by north Sulawesi (0.047) and east Kalimantan (0.171). Education (44.7%) followed by rural-urban place of residence (30.1%) and age of first birth (11.9%) contributed most to explain the gap in CS delivery among rich and poor women. Conclusion The study highlighted the higher CS delivery rates among women from higher socioeconomic groups and thus, it is important to frame policies after identifying the population subgroups with potential underuse or overuse of CS method of delivery.