Back to browse results
Individual, household and area predictors of anaemia among children aged 6–59 months in Nigeria
Authors: Phillips Edomwonyi Obasohan, Stephen J. Walters, Richard Jacques, and Khaled Khatab
Source: Public Health in Practice, Volume 3; DOI:
Topic(s): Anemia
Children under five
Country: Africa
Published: JUN 2022
Abstract: Objectives This study aims to determine the prevalence of anaemia among children aged 6–59 months in all states of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), and to quantify the predicted probabilities by individual, household and area factors. Study design This study is a secondary analysis of data sets from two national representative cross-sectional surveys in Nigeria: the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2018 NDHS) and the National Human Development Index (2018 NHDR). The state human development index (HDI) and the state multidimensional poverty index (MPI) from the 2018 NHDR were incorporated into the 2018 NDHS. Methods The study included a weighted sample of 10,222 children aged 6–59 months. Both univariate and bivariate analyses were computed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with anaemia status, respectively. Multiple binary logistic regression analyses with adjusted predicted probabilities (APPs) were performed to quantify the predictors’ probabilities. Results The prevalence of anaemia among children aged 6–59 months in Nigeria was 68.1% (6962/10,222). Zamfara state had the highest prevalence (84.0% [266/317]), while Kaduna state recorded the lowest (50.0% [283/572]). The APPs of being anaemic decreased from 82.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80.0–85.8) for children aged 6–18 months to 60.6% (95% CI: 56.8–64.4) for children aged 43–59 months, when other predictors were held constant. The APP for a child of an anaemic mother is 10.2% points higher than the APP for a child whose mother is not anaemic. In addition, the APPs for children decreased as the age group of their mothers increased. A child from a state that is mildly deprived in the MPI has a lower APP (67.2% [95% CI: 62.2–72.2]) compared with a child from highly deprived MPI state (79.0% [95% CI: 73.4–84.5]). Conclusions Health strategies, including supplementation programmes, should be carried out at both ante-natal and post-natal clinics to reduce the prevalence of anaemia, especially in vulnerable population groups.