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The association of household wealth and migration status on antenatal care in India, 2015-16
Authors: Manoj Dakua and K.C. Das
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 22; DOI:
Topic(s): Antenatal care
Wealth Index
Country: Asia
Published: AUG 2023
Abstract: Background Although Antenatal Care has long been a concern for social scientists and public health experts, most research has focused on the poor and migrants as discrete categories. Another worry is whether poorer and migrant women have double obstacles in obtaining Antenatal Care (ANC). This study aims to look into the factors that influence ANC utilization among migrant and poor women in India. Methods This study used the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) data conducted during 2015–16. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to investigate the association between ANC utilization and wealth and the migration status of women. Results About 10.2% of migrant and poorer women had received full ANC, compared to 30.3% of non-poorer non-migrant women. We found a significant difference in full ANC utilization across wealth and migrant groups. Non-poorer and non-migrant women had a significantly 1.31 times higher likelihood of using full ANC compared to poorer and migrant women, and 1.84 times higher likelihood of accessing four or more ANC visits. Analyses show that women's age, literacy, husband literacy, birth order, social group, religion, and type of residence were significantly associated with the gap in full ANC utilization across migrant and wealth groups. Conclusion This study found disparities in ANC utilization across wealth and migrant groups.Poorer migrant women were at higher risk of receiving inadequate care. Therefore, policymakers should make an extra effort to provide ANC to these women to reduce the ANC utilization gap.