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Urban-rural inequalities and spatial arrangement of informed choice of family planning in Ethiopia: Further analysis of 2016 Ethiopian demographic health survey
Authors: Abiyu Abadi Tareke, Bayley Adane Takele, Mohammedjud Hassen Ahmed, Masresha Derese Tegegne, Habitu Birhan Eshetu
Source: PLOS ONE , DOI:
Topic(s): Contraception
Family planning
Maternal health
Rural-urban differentials
Spatial analysis
Country: Africa
Published: AUG 2023
Abstract: Background Ethiopia has made satisfactory progress in improving maternal and child health over the past two decades. The introduction of family planning through informed choice is one of the main strategies to improve maternal and child health. However, this positive progress may have masked the significant urban-rural disparities in informed choice for family planning. Objective To identify factor contributing to observed urban-rural disparities and to determine the spatial distribution of informed family planning choices in Ethiopia. Methods The study used information from 3,511 women currently using contraceptives (rural-2685 and urban-826) as per recent Ethiopian demographic health survey cross-sectional data. Spatial and descriptive, bivariable, and multivariable logit-based decomposition analysis methods were used. Results The spatial configuration of uninformed choice was clustered. The primary cluster (LLR = 34.8, p-value<0.001) was located at the southern portion of Amhara region that covers east & west Gojjam, south Gondar and south Wollo administrative zones. The magnitude of informed choice was 12 percent higher in urban residents compared to rural residents. Urban-rural gap was attributed to variations in characteristics (74%). Place of family planning offer i.e., private health facility, being aged between 35 and 49 years, and having visited to health facility in the last 1 year are found decrease the urban-rural gap of informed family planning choice by 15%, 9% and 5% respectively. Conversely, being aged between 25 and 34 years, being a listener to radio has increased the gap by 9% and 12% respectively. Conclusion The variables being private health facility visitors, being aged between 35 and 49 years and having visited health facilities in the last one year are found to increase the gap of informed family planning choices between urban and rural residents Besides, the spatial distribution of uninformed family planning choices is non-random.