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Micronutrient intake status and associated factors in children aged 6–23 months in sub-Saharan Africa
Authors: Melaku Tadege Engidaw, Alemayehu Digssie Gebremariam, Sofonyas Abebaw Tiruneh, Desalegn Tesfa, Yalelet Fentaw, Belayneh Kefale, Mulu Tiruneh & Abebaw Tadesse Wubie
Source: Scientific Reports, 13
Topic(s): Child feeding
Child health
Country: Africa
  Multiple African Countries
  Sierra Leone
  South Africa
Published: JUN 2023
Abstract: Micronutrient deficiency has serious consequences across all ages worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Poor micronutrient (MN) consumption among children remains a major public health concern in many countries. Low literacy, poor diets, a lack of access to healthcare, and insufficient agricultural productivity made proper micronutrient consumption difficult, despite numerous interventions. Thus, this research aimed to determine the adequate intake of MNs among 6–23 months of age children in sub-Saharan Africa. Initially, a two-stage stratified sampling technique was applied for the selected recent demographic and health survey data. The data source was the (2015–2020) standard demographic and health surveys (DHS) among 20 Sub-Saharan African countries. Micronutrient intake status (the outcome variable) was determined using either food rich in Vitamin A or iron consumed within the previous 24 hr or multiple micronutrient powder or iron supplementation within the previous 07 days or vitamin A supplementation or deworming within 06 months. A generalized linear mixed model based on Modified Poisson regression and robust error variance was used to identify factors associated with children’s adequate micronutrient intake. An adjusted Prevalence Ratio (aPR) with a 95% confidence interval was used to identify factors, strength and direction of the association. The total samples of 65,187 children aged 6–23 months were included. Of all, 73.99% (95% CI: 73.65, 74.32) of children had adequate intake of micronutrients. Maternal education (primary (aPR?=?1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06) and secondary (aPR?=?1.07, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.09)), father’s education (primary (aPR?=?1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05) and secondary (aPR?=?1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06)), occupational status of the mother (aPR?=?1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06), pregnancy interval (aPR?=?0.97, 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99), exclusive breastfeeding status (aPR?=?0.83, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.85), birthweight (average (aPR?=?1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05) and larger than average (aPR?=?1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06)), multiple/twin at birth (aPR?=?0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.98), child age (aPR?=?1.22, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.25), number of children in home (aPR?=?1.02, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03), ANC utilization (aPR?=?1.20, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.27), place of birth (AOR?=?0.93, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.95), rich households (aPR?=?1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05), and countries from Central (aPR?=?1.07, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.09), South Africa (aPR?=?1.07, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.11), and West African (aPR?=?0.95, 95% CI: 0.92, 0.99) were associated with level of micronutrients intake status. The prevalence of adequate intake of MN was considerable. Variables at the child, family and community levels were associated with adequate intake of micronutrients. Consequently, stakeholders’ involvement is required in healthcare and community settings.