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Exploring spatial patterns, and identifying factors associated with insufficient cash or food received from a productive safety net program among eligible households in Ethiopia: a spatial and multilevel analysis as an input for international food aid programmers
Authors: Addisalem Workie Demsash, Milkias Dugassa Emanu & Agmasie Damtew Walle
Source: BMC Public Health, 23
Topic(s): Food insecurity
Spatial analysis
Country: Africa
Published: JUN 2023
Abstract: Background: In low-income countries, households’ food insecurity and the undernutrition of children are the main health problems. Ethiopia is vulnerable to food insecurity and undernutrition among children because its agricultural production system is traditional. Hence, the productive safety net program (PSNP) is implemented as a social protection system to combat food insecurity and enhance agricultural productivity by providing cash or food assistance to eligible households. So, this study aimed to explore spatial patterns of households’ insufficient cash or food receiving from PSNP, and identify its associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods: The 2019 Ethiopian Mini Demographic and Health Survey dataset was used. A total of 8595 households were included in this study. Data management and descriptive analysis were done using STATA version 15 software and Microsoft Office Excel. ArcMap version 10.7 software was used for spatial exploration and visualization. SaTScan version 9.5 software was used for spatial scan statistics reports. In the multilevel mixed effect logistic regression analysis, explanatory variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 were considered significant factors. Results: Overall, 13.5% (95% CI: 12.81–14.27%) of the households’ level beneficiaries received cash or food from PSNP. The spatial distribution of households’ benficiaries received cash or food from PSNP was not random, and good access to cash or food from PSNP was detected in Addis Ababa, SNNPR, Amhara, and Oromia regions. Households’ heads aged 25–34 (AOR:1.43, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.00), 35–44 (AOR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.72, 3.37), and?>?34 (AOR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.83, 3.51) years, being female (AOR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.27,1.79), poor households (AOR: 1.91, 95% CI:1.52, 2.39), Amhara (AOR:.14, 95% CI: .06, .39) and Oromia (AOR:.36, 95% CI:.12, 0.91) regions, being rural residents (AOR:2.18, 95% CI: 1.21,3.94), and enrollment in CBHS (AOR: 3.34, 95% CI:2.69,4.16) are statistically significant factors. Conclusions: Households have limited access to cash or food from the PSNP. Households in Addis Ababa, SNNPR, Amhara, and Oromia regions are more likely to receive benefits from PSNP. Encouraging poor and rural households to receive benefits from the PSNP and raise awareness among beneficiaries to use the benefits they received for productivity purposes. Stakeholders would ensure the eligibility criteria and pay close attention to the hotspot areas.