Back to browse results
Small area variations in four measures of poverty among Indian households: Econometric analysis of National Family Health Survey 2019–2021
Authors: Anoop Jain, Sunil Rajpal, Md Juel Rana, Rockli Kim and S. V. Subramanian
Source: Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, Volume 10; DOI:
Topic(s): Inequality
Spatial analysis
Country: Asia
Published: JAN 2023
Abstract: India has seen enormous reductions in poverty in the past few decades. However, much of this progress has been unequal throughout the country. This paper examined the 2019–2021 National Family Health Survey to examine small area variations in four measures of household poverty. Overall, the results show that clusters and states were the largest sources of variation for the four measures of poverty. These findings also show persistent within-district inequality when examining the bottom 10th wealth percentile, bottom 20th wealth percentile, and multidimensional poverty. Thus, these findings pinpoint the precise districts where between-cluster inequality in poverty is most prevalent. This can help guide policy makers in terms of targeting policies aimed at reducing poverty.