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Trend and factors associated with anemia among women reproductive age in Ethiopia: A multivariate decomposition analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey
Authors: Berhan Tsegaye Negash , and Mohammed Ayalew
Source: PLOS ONE , Volume 18, issue 1; DOI:
Topic(s): Anemia
Reproductive health
Women's health
Country: Africa
Published: JAN 2023
Abstract: Background: In developing countries like Ethiopia, anemia is a public health problem. Unfortunately, the progress of anemia reduction has been slow. Although the issue of anemia has received considerable critical attention nowadays, trends and factors associated with anemia among women of reproductive age have not been explored in Ethiopia. Objective: This study aimed to determine trends and factors associated with anemia among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia from 2005 to 2016. Method: Data from three consecutive Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) from 2005–2016 were analyzed in this study. EDHS is a two-stage cluster sampling survey. Data were weighted to correct sampling bias in all surveys. A total of 46,268 samples were analyzed using a fixed effect model. For a measure of proportion, differences and slopes were computed. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors of the trend of anemia among women. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval(CI) was computed, and the p-value < 0.05 is considered significant. Result: Prevalence of anemia among women was 68%, 20.3%, and 27.3% in 2005, 2011 and 2016, respectively. The trend of anemia was reduced by 47.7 percentage points from 2005 to 2011; however, it increased by 7% points again from 2011 in 2016. Lack of mobile phones (AOR = 1.4, 95%CI, 1.2,1.6), Afar women (AOR = 1.5, 95%CI, 1.1,2.3) and Somali women (AOR = 1.5, 95%CI, 1.1,1.9) were associated with anaemia among women. On the contrary, the history of heavy menstruation in the last six months (AOR = 0.9; 95%CI, 0.85,0.98) was a factor negatively associated with anemia in 2005. In 2011, single women (AOR = 0.8,95%CI,0.7,0.9), watching TV less than once per wk (AOR = 0.9,95%CI,0.7,0.95), watching TV at least once per week (AOR = 0.8,95%CI,0.7,0.98) were variables associated with anemia. On the contrary, widowed women (AOR = 1.7,95%CI,1.4,2.0) were affected by anemia. In 2016, the richest women (AOR = 0.7, 95%CI, 0.6,0.8) and single (AOR = 0.8, 95%CI, 0.7,0.9) were affected little by anemia. Women of traditional belief followers (AOR = 2.2,95%CI,1.6,2.9) were more highly influenced by anemia than their counterparts. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia declined rapidly from 2005 to 2011, and increased from 2011 to 2016. Stakeholders should develop policies and programs to enhance the socio-demographic status of women and basic infrastructure for the community. Furthermore, they should design strategies for extensive media coverage of the prevention of anemia. The federal government should balance the proportion of anemia among regions by ensuring health equality.