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Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Infection among Sexually Active Women in Ethiopia: Further Analysis of 2016 EDHS
Authors: Solomon Sisay Mulugeta and Selamawit Getachew Wassihun
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment, Volume 2022; DOI:
Topic(s): HIV testing
Sexual health
Women's health
Country: Africa
Published: NOV 2022
Abstract: Background. The issue of HIV/AIDS is prevalent around the world and in Ethiopia as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV/AIDS infection among sexually active women in Ethiopia. Methods. For this study, data were obtained from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2016. This study contains 11,729 women who have had at least one episode of sexual intercourse in their lifetime. Interviewers for voluntary HIV testing collected finger-prick blood specimens from women who agreed to be tested for HIV. Based on factors at the individual and community levels, a multilevel logistic regression model was used. Results. The study found that 2% of 11,729 sexually active women tested positive for HIV from all regions who received voluntary counseling and testing. The intraclass correlation coefficient findings showed that 32.844% of HIV/AIDS transmission among sexually active women was the result of community-level factors. Variables at the individual level were women of age 16–24 (AOR?=?0.18; 95% CI: 0.11–0.29), women of age 25–34 (AOR?=?0.733; 95% CI: 0.55–0.98), women with primary education level (AOR?=?1.8; 95% CI: 1.23–2.57), more than one sexual accomplice (AOR?=?1.33; 95% CI: 0.613–2.87), and women’s age at first sexual intercourse between 25 and 34 (AOR?=?0.57, 95% CI: 0.301, 1.06); these were the most significant determinants of HIV/AIDS infection. According to community-level factors, there was a lower HIV prevalence rate among rural women (AOR?=?0.22; 95 percent CI: 0.13–0.36), and women in the Gambela region (AOR?=?4.1; 95 percent CI: 1.99–8.34) also had higher HIV prevalence rates. Conclusions. The prevalence of HIV infection among sexually active women varies by region, with urban women more likely to contract the virus. Women who had more than one regular sexual partner and had their first sexual encounter at a younger age are at an increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. According to the study, the government should focus more support on high-risk clusters, mainly in urban areas, as well as on regions with high rates of HIV/AIDS infection.