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Missed opportunities for vaccination in Peru 2010-2020: A study of socioeconomic inequalities
Authors: Jose Matta-Chuquisapon, Camila Gianella, and Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar
Source: Lancet Regional Health - Americas, Volume 14, issue 100321, DOI:
Topic(s): Health equity
Country: Latin American/Caribbean
Published: OCT 2022
Abstract: Background: Missed Opportunities for Vaccination (MOV) represent a major risk in the re-emergence of immunopreventable diseases. However, in the region, there are few published studies on MOVs using national databases such as demographic and health surveys (DHS). This study aims to describe the frequency and trends of MOVs for the first dose of vaccines against the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality, their complete vaccination coverage, and trends in socioeconomic inequalities at the national and departmental levels for an 11-years period. Methods: Using DHS data from an 11-year period (2010–2020), we calculated frequencies and trends in MOVs of vaccines for the leading causes of child morbidity and mortality, estimated inequalities in MOVs using the Slope Inequality Index (SII) and conducted a spatial autocorrelation test to identify clusters of higher or lower inequality in MOVs at the national level. Findings: We found that, at the national level, greater inequality was concentrated in the wealthiest categories of each socioeconomic variable. We identified that departments with higher poverty rates concentrated higher levels of inequality in the MOVs in the lowest strata of the socioeconomic variables. In addition, we found that some departments with similar geographic and socioeconomic characteristics had spatially correlated levels of inequality on MOVs. Interpretation: These findings can help to identify the heterogeneity that exists in the distribution of MOVs among departments and socioeconomic strata, which would help to prioritize specific areas and subpopulations for national immunization strategies. Funding: No additional funding source was required for this study.