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Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Barriers among Women in India: A Generalized Structural Equation Modeling Approach
Authors: Nilima N, Mani K, Kaushik S, and Rai SN
Source: Cancers, Volume 14, issue 13; DOI:
Topic(s): Data models
Women's health
Country: Asia
Published: JUN 2022
Abstract: Exploring the barriers and facilitators of cervical cancer screening (CCS) is essential to reduce the incidence and mortality, particularly in low and middle-income countries. The present study investigates the direct, indirect, and total effects of the barriers and facilitators on CCS in India through the generalized structural equation modeling using data from women files of the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4). Generalized structural equation models were used to quantify the hypothetical pathway via fitting a series of regression equations. Age, body mass index, religion, years of schooling, awareness of sexually transmitted infection, contraception use, lifetime number of sex partners, number of children, and wealth index were shown to have significant direct effects on the CCS. Older women had 1.16 times the odds of getting screened for cervical cancer as compared to their younger counterpart. The odds of CCS among the women in richest wealth quintile is 2.50 times compared to the poorest. Those who are aware of STIs have 1.39 times the odds of getting screened for cervical cancer. Wealth index, years of schooling, and religion have a substantial indirect and total impact on the CCS. The findings will aid in policy formulations for enhancing the CCS in India.