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Living standard and access to tetanus toxoid immunization among women in Bangladesh
Authors: Ummay Nayeema Islam, Kanchan Kumar Sen, and Wasimul Bari
Source: BMC Public Health, Volume 22, issue 1037; DOI:
Topic(s): Immunization
Women's health
Country: Asia
Published: MAY 2022
Abstract: Background: Although Bangladesh has an impressive track record in the reduction of maternal and child mortality, tetanus, a dreadful disease, impedes the way to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) in this respect. Sufficient doses of tetanus toxoid containing vaccine during pregnancy ensure immunity against tetanus to mothers as well as newborns. Since inequalities persist across vaccination programs globally, in this paper, an attempt has been made to examine whether tetanus toxoid immunization (TTI) status among the women of reproductive age in Bangladesh for their most recent live birth born preceding 2?years of the survey changes with their living standard index (LSI). Methods: Five domains of deprivation such as energy use, improved sanitation, drinking water, housing and assets ownership were used to compute the LSI using a approach proposed by Alkire and Foster. The adjusted association between LSI and TTI was established by using logistic regression model. For the purpose of statistical analysis, a nationally representative cross-sectional data extracted from Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (BMICS), 2019 have been used. Result: The bivariate analysis revealed that 79.5% (95% CI 78.0–81.0) of women with low and 83.1% (95% CI 81.3–84.9) with moderate living standards had sufficient vaccination coverage for their most recent pregnancies while this percentage was higher for the women who belonged to high living standard (85.2, 95% CI?=?84.2–86.2). A strong evidence for greater odds of sufficient immunization with TT among the women maintaining a high standard of living (AOR?=?1.24, 95% CI?=?1.08–1.42, p?