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Spatial variation and determinates of dietary diversity among children aged 6–23 months in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis using Ethiopian Demography Health Survey (EDHS) 2019
Authors: Tewodros Getaneh Alemu, Masresha Asmare Techane, Chalachew Adugna Wubneh, Nega Tezera Assimamaw, Getaneh Mulualem Belay, Tadesse Tarik Tamir, Addis Bilal Muhye, Destaye Guadie Kassie, Amare Wondim, Bewuketu Terefe, Bethelihem Tigabu Tarekegn, Mohammed Seid Ali, Beletech Fentie, Almaz Tefera Gonete, Berhan Tekeba, Selam Fisiha Kassa, Bogale Kassahun Desta, Amare Demsie Ayele, Melkamu Tilahun Dessie
Source: Archives of Public Health, Volume 80, issue 152; DOI:
Topic(s): Children under five
Spatial analysis
Country: Africa
Published: JUN 2022
Abstract: Background: Minimum dietary diversity is the consumption of five or more food groups from the eight World Health Organization recommended food groups. Adequately diversified diet, in terms of amount and composition, is critical for optimal growth, development, and long-term health outcomes in the first 2 years. Understanding the regional variation of dietary diversity and the underlying factors is crucial for developing and implementing interventions. However, the use of spatial approaches in dietary studies has not been widely established. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the spatial patterns and determinates of minimum dietary diversity practice among 6–23 months children in Ethiopia. Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted based on the Demographic and Health Surveys data conducted in Ethiopia. A total weighted sample of 1578 children aged 6–23 months was included for this study. The Global Moran’s I was estimated to look into the regional variation of dietary diversity and hotspot and cold spot areas. Further, multivariable multilevel logistic regression was used for factor analyses. Adjusted Odds Ratio with 95% CI was used to declare the strength and significance of the association. Results: Overall, 87.4% (95% CI: 85.7 to 88.9%) of children in 2019 had inadequate Minimum dietary diversity. We identified statistically significant clusters of high inadequate dietary diversity (hotspots) notably observed in Somali, Afar, Eastern and western Amhara, western Tigray, Benishangul, and Northeastern and western parts of the southern nations, nationality and peoples’ regions. Inadequate dietary diversity was significantly higher among young children, uneducated mother, married women, younger mother, no postnatal check, community with higher level of poverty and community level uneducated woman. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study inadequate Minimum dietary diversity for children as measured by World Health Organization dietary assessment shows high. Children's dietary diversity was distributed non-randomly in different districts across Ethiopia's regions. The findings of the study provided critical evidence about dietary diversity and associated factors. Hence, policy should focused on improve education status of Mother, boosting economic status of the community, increased maternal continuum of care and focused on young children nutrition may advance dietary diversity.