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Tobacco Use among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women and Men in Zambia—Demographic and Health Survey, 2018
Authors: Alissa C. Kress, Carlen Stadnik, Masauso Moses Phiri, Fastone M. Goma, and Evelyn Twentyman
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 19, issue 7; DOI:
Topic(s): HIV/AIDS
Tobacco use
Country: Africa
Published: MAR 2022
Abstract: Country-specific estimates of tobacco use among people living with HIV (PLWH) are lacking for much of sub-Saharan Africa. We aim to evaluate the association between the HIV status and tobacco product use status, frequency, and intensity, using nationally representative data from Zambia. We analyzed data from the 2018 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Zambia among women aged 15–49 years and men aged 15–59 years. We performed logistic regression to assess the associations of HIV status, selected sociodemographic, and other characteristics with indicators of tobacco use (i.e., status, frequency, and intensity). Among women, 14.3% tested positive for HIV and 2.7% reported current smoking or tobacco use; women living with HIV were more likely to report currently smoking or using tobacco than women living without HIV (4.4% vs. 2.4%; aPR: 1.46). Among men, 8.4% tested positive for HIV and 19.5% reported current smoking; men living with HIV were more likely than men living without HIV to report current smoking (27.8% vs. 18.7%; aPR: 1.22). Several sociodemographic characteristics were associated with tobacco use, including age, residence (urban/rural), education level, employment status, and wealth index. The frequency and intensity of smoking among men who currently smoked did not differ by HIV status. Tobacco use was more likely in PLWH than those without HIV in Zambia. Our findings highlight the need to encourage and support tobacco cessation among PLWH, possibly by offering cessation services at existing intersections with health care or integrating cessation support into mHealth and other alternative models of care.