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Levels, patterns and determinants of using reversible contraceptives for limiting family planning in India: evidence from National Family Health Survey, 2015–16
Authors: Margubur Rahaman, Risha Singh, Pradip Chouhan, Avijit Roy, Sumela Ajmer and Md Juel Rana
Source: BMC Women's Health, Volume 22, issue 124; DOI:
Topic(s): Contraception
Family planning
Unmet need
Country: Asia
Published: APR 2022
Abstract: Background: Demand for family planning is predominantly for birth limiting rather than birth spacing in India. Despite several family planning programmes in India, the use of reversible contraception for limiting family planning has been stagnant and largely depends on female sterilization. Though many researchers have examined patterns and determinants of using modern contraception for total family planning, studies on patterns and determinants of contraceptive use for birth limiting are limited in India. This paper examines the patterns of contraceptive use for liming demand and its determinants in India. Methods: The National Family Health Survey-4, 2015–16 data was used. Bivariate chi-square significant test and multivariate binary logistic regression model used to accomplish the study objectives. Results: Majority of women (86.5%) satisfied limiting demand (SLD) in India; the SLD was found significantly low among the women’s age 15–19 years (53.1%) and parity 0 (42%). The satisfied limiting demand by modern reversible contraception (mrSLD) was found significantly high in age group 15–19 years (49.1%), Muslims (30.6%) and North-east region (45.4%). The satisfied limiting demand by traditional contraception (tSLD) was almost three times higher in North-east region (26.1%) than national average of India (8.7%). The women’s years of schooling, wealth status, religion and presence of son child found to be significant determinants of mrSLD. The likelihood of tSLD was found significantly high among the women who had no son child (AOR?=?1.41; 95% CI:1.34, 1.48), Muslim (AOR?=?1.78; 95% CI:1.70, 1.87). A considerable regional variability in levels of SLD, mrSLD and tSLD was found in India. Conclusion: Public investment in family planning is required to promote and provide subsidized modern reversible contraception (MRC) services, especially to women from North-east region, Muslim, Scheduled tribe, poor household and who had no son child. Improving the quality and availability of MRC services in public health centre will be helpful to increase SLD among the above mentioned women. Besides, the promotion of MRC will be supportive to overcome the issues of sterilization regrets in India.