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Open defecation practice and its determinants among households in sub-Saharan Africa: pooled prevalence and multilevel analysis of 33 sub-Saharan Africa countries demographic and health survey
Authors: Daniel Gashaneh Belay, Melaku Hunie Asratie, Fantu Mamo Aragaw, Nuhamin Tesfa Tsega, Mastewal Endalew and Moges Gashaw
Source: Tropical Medicine and Health, Volume 50, issue 28; DOI:
Topic(s): Gender-based violence (GBV)
Sexual violence
Country: Africa
  Multiple African Countries
Published: MAR 2022
Abstract: Background: Open defecation facilitates the transmission of pathogens that cause diarrheal diseases, which is the second leading contributor to the global burden of disease. It also exposed hundreds of millions of girls and women around the world to increased sexual exploitation. Open defecation is more practice in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and is considered an indicator of low socioeconomic status. However, there is little evidence on the pooled prevalence and factors contributing to open defecation practice among households in SSA. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the pooled prevalence, wealth-related inequalities, and other determinants of open defecation practice among households in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Demographic and Health Survey data sets of 33 SSA countries with a total sample of 452,281 households were used for this study. Data were weighted, cleaned, and analyzed using STATA 14 software. Meta analyses were used to determine the pooled prevalence of open defecation practice among households in SSA. Multilevel analysis was employed to identify factors contributing to open defecation practice among households in SSA. Moreover, concentration index and graph were used to assess wealth-related inequalities of open defecation practice. The associations between dependent and independent variables were presented using adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with a p value of?