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Factors of induced and noninduced menopause in India
Authors: Rajeshwari Annappa Biradar, Jang Bahadur Prasad, Renuka E Asagi
Source: BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 6, issue 2, DOI:
Topic(s): Health care utilization
Reproductive health
Country: Asia
Published: JAN 2021
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In recent years, hysterectomy has received increased attention in health policy debates in India. The objective of the study was to examine induced and noninduced menopause and its associated factors among menopause women in India. METHODS: The study has used the Indian fourth round of National Family Health Survey data (2015–2016), which is a cross-sectional nationally representative sample of 48,771 menopause women in the age group of 30–49 years. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine differences and factors of induced and noninduced menopause among menopause women in India. RESULTS: In India, among menopause women, 35.3% were induced menopause. Eight states and two union territories have reported induced menopause above the national average. On the other hand, the lowest induced menopause was seen in Assam state. Younger age women had a higher risk of induced menopause, and its reverse was true in older age women. Bivariate results have shown induced menopause was higher in rural (36.4%), secondary educated (39.1%), married (37.0%), Hindu (36.4%), and other backward castes (OBC) caste (39.3%) women. The differences of induced menopause were significantly high in women with high body mass index, belongs to OBC caste, married, Hindu religion, and South and Central regions compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSION: The estimations could be beneficial for planning and implementation of reproductive and postreproductive health services related to menopause, especially among women of younger age groups.