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Trends and correlates of intimate partner violence experienced by ever-married women of India: results from National Family Health Survey round III and IV
Authors: Priyanka Garg, Milan Das, Lajya Devi Goyal, and Madhur Verma
Source: BMC Public Health, Volume 21, article number: 2012; DOI:
Topic(s): Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
Country: Asia
Published: NOV 2021
Abstract: Background: The study aims to estimate the prevalence of Intimate partner violence (IPV) in India, and changes observed over a decade as per the nationally representative datasets from National Family Health Surveys (NFHS) Round 3 and 4. We also highlight various socio-demographic characteristics associated with different types of IPV in India. The NFHS round 3 and 4 interviewed 124,385, and 699,686 women respondents aged 15–49?years using a multi-stage sampling method across 29 states and 2 union territories in India. For IPV, we only included ever-married women (64,607, and 62,716) from the two rounds. Primary outcomes of the study was prevalence of the ever-experience of different types of IPV: physical, emotional, and sexual violence by ever-married women aged 15 to 49?years. The secondary outcome included predictors of different forms of IPV, and changes in the prevalence of different types of IPV compared to the previous round of the NFHS survey. Results: As per NFHS-4, weighted prevalence of physical, sexual, emotional, or any kind of IPV ever-experienced by women were 29.2%, 6.7%, 13.2%, and 32.8%. These subtypes of IPV depicted a relative change of -?14.9%, -?30.2%, -?11.0%, -?15.7% compared to round 3. Significant state-wise variations were observed in the prevalence. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis highlighted women's and partner’s education, socio-economic status, women empowerment, urban-rural residence, partner’s controlling behaviours as major significant predictors of IPV. Conclusions: Our study findings suggest high prevalence of IPV with state-wise variations in the prevalence. Similar factors were responsible for different forms of IPV. Therefore, based on existing evidences, it is recommended to offer adequate screening and counselling services for the couples, especially in health-care settings so that they speak up against IPV, and are offered timely help to prevent long-term physical and mental health consequences.