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Exploring spatial variation in BCG vaccination among children 0–35 months in Ethiopia: spatial analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2016
Authors: Chilot Desta Agegnehu, Adugnaw Zeleke Alem
Source: BMJ Open, DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043565
Topic(s): Spatial analysis
Country: Africa
Published: APR 2021
Abstract: Objective: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem and is the second leading cause of death worldwide. BCG vaccination is a life-saving and important part of standard tuberculosis control measures, particularly in Ethiopia where tuberculosis is endemic. The End Tuberculosis Strategy targets of 2020 have not been achieved. Exploring spatial variations in BCG vaccination among children is vital to designing and monitoring effective intervention programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the spatial variation in BCG vaccination among children in Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional study design. Setting: Ethiopia. Participants: Children aged 0–35 months. Primary outcome: BCG vaccination coverage. Methods: Data from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey were used and a total of 4453 children aged 0–35 months were included. Spatial autocorrelation analysis, cluster and outlier analysis, hotspot analysis, spatial interpolation, and spatial scan statistics were carried out to identify geographical risk areas for BCG vaccine utilisation. ArcGIS V.10.6 and SaTScan V.9.6 statistical software were employed to explore spatial pattern and significant hotspot areas for BCG vaccination among children. Results: BCG vaccination was spatially clustered in Ethiopia at the regional level (Global Moran’s I=0.516, p<0.001). A total of 51 most likely clusters of low BCG vaccination were identified in the Somali and Afar regions (log-likelihood ratio=136.58, p<0.001). Significant secondary clusters were also identified in North West Gambela, South Amhara, South West Addis Ababa, North East Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region, and South West Oromia. Conclusion: A low probability of receiving BCG vaccination was found among children in the Somali and Afar regions. Therefore, these areas should be given attention when designing effective immunisation strategies to improve BCG vaccination among children in order to reduce the burden of tuberculosis in Ethiopia.