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Multilevel modelling of the risk of malaria among children aged under five years in Nigeria
Authors: Victor M. Oguoma, Anayochukwu E. Anyasodor, Adeniyi O. Adeleye, Obiora A. Eneanya, and Evaristus C. Mbanefo
Source: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/traa092
Topic(s): Anemia
Children under five
Insecticidetreated mosquito nets (ITNs)
Country: Africa
Published: MAY 2021
Abstract: Malaria is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children aged <5 y (U5s). This study assessed individual, household and community risk factors for malaria in Nigerian U5s. Data from the Nigerian Malaria Health Indicator Survey 2015 were pooled for analyses. This comprised a national survey of 329 clusters. Children aged 6-59 mo who were tested for malaria using microscopy were retained. Multilevel logit model accounting for sampling design was used to assess individual, household and community factors associated with malaria parasitaemia. A total of 5742 children were assessed for malaria parasitaemia with an overall prevalence of 27% (95% CI 26 to 28%). Plasmodium falciparum constituted 98% of the Plasmodium species. There was no significant difference in parasitaemia between older children and those aged =12 mo. In adjusted analyses, rural living, northwest region, a household size of >7, dependence on river and rainwater as primary water source were associated with higher odds of parasitaemia, while higher wealth index, all U5s who slept under a bed net and dependence on packaged water were associated with lower odds of parasitaemia. Despite sustained investment in malaria control and prevention, a quarter of the overall study population of U5s have malaria. Across the six geopolitical zones, the highest burden was in children living in the poorest rural households.