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Determinants of neonatal, post-neonatal and child mortality in Afghanistan using frailty models
Authors: Ian A. Forde, and Vrijesh Tripathi
Source: Pediatric Research, 58; DOI:
Topic(s): Breastfeeding
Childhood mortality
Children under five
Neonatal mortality
Perinatal mortality
Country: Asia
Published: APR 2021
Abstract: Afghanistan has one of the highest under-five mortality rates in South Asia, 70.4 per 1000 live births. Determinants need to be identified to reduce this rate. Knowledge of the existence of familial and community frailty will also assist in the reduction of under-five mortality. The 2015 Afghanistan Demographic Health Survey, including 32,712 live births, was analysed. Under-five mortality was disaggregated into neonatal, post-neonatal and child mortality and piecewise traditional Cox proportional hazard, variance-corrected and frailty models were developed. All the models identified determinants and the two frailty models examined the existence of familial and community frailty for each age group. There was statistically significant evidence of community frailty. Breastfeeding status was a highly significant determinant under univariable and multivariable analysis for neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. Post-neonates of employed mothers also experienced increased mortality, particularly those whose mother worked in agriculture where the hazard ratio was 2.77 (95% CI 2.10, 3.65). Birth order 5+ was associated with increased mortality for all three age groups.