Back to browse results
A multilevel analysis of determinants of PMTCT service utilisation among women during the antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum period in Ethiopia
Authors: Tsegaye Gebremedhin, Tesfa Sewunet Alamneh, Asebe Hagos, Beimnet Desalegn, and Nigusu Worku
Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , Vol. 21, No. 1; DOI:
Topic(s): Child health
Maternal health
Service utilization
Country: Africa
Published: JUL 2021
Abstract: Abstract Background Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the largest source of HIV infection in children below the age of 15 years, and more than 90% of pediatric HIV are infected through mother to child transmission. Without treatment, one-half of those infected children will die before the age of 2 years. Despite this, there is limited evidence on PMTCT and its determinants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the factors affecting the PMTCT service utilisation in Ethiopia. Methods A two-stage stratified sampling technique was used to identify 4081 women from 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A multilevel mixed-effect binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the individual and community level factors associated with PMTCT services utilisation. In the final model, a p-value of < 0.05 and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to declare statistically significant factors with the utilisation. Results Overall, 21.9% (95% CI, 20.6–23.2) of the women were utilized PMTCT services. Educational status; primary (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.27–2.13), secondary (AOR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.03–2.24) and higher school (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.45–4.22), poorer (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12–2.37), middle (AOR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.10–3.02), richer (AOR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.42–4.21) and richest (AOR: 4.45, 95% CI: 2.43–8.14) wealth status and orthodox religion follower (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.22–2.16) were the individual level factors. Moreover, having basic (AOR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.34–2.06) and comprehensive (AOR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.38–2.18) knowledge on HIV prevention methods, having knowledge on MTCT of HIV (AOR: 2.69, 95% CI: 2.16–3.36) were also factors at individual level. Whereas, rural residence (AOR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.32–0.85) was the community level factors that affects the utilization. Conclusions Less than one-fourth of the mothers had utilised the PMTCT services in Ethiopia. To increase the utilisation of the services, the health care providers should give emphases on counselling, awareness creation, and strengthen the existing frontline integrated health care services in the country.