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Magnitude of antenatal care service uptake and associated factors among pregnant women: analysis of the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey
Authors: Setegn Muche Fenta, Berhanu Engidaw Getahun, and Girum Meseret Ayenew
Source: BMJ Open, Vol. 11, No. 4; DOI:
Topic(s): Antenatal care
Mass media
Maternal health
Wealth Index
Country: Africa
Published: APR 2021
Abstract: Objective Antenatal and postnatal cares are crucial for the survival and well-being of both the mother and the child. WHO recommends a minimum of four antenatal care (ANC) visits during a pregnancy. In Ethiopia, only 38% of women in the reproductive age make a minimum of first ANC visits. This value is far below the typical rates of least developed countries. This study aimed to calculate the magnitude and identify associated factors of ANC service utilisation among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Design Cross-sectional study design. Setting Ethiopia. Participants A total of 7913 pregnant women participated in the study. Primary outcome measures Antenatal care service uptake among pregnant women. Result Only 35.5% of the pregnant mothers have used ANC services at least four times and 64.5% of the pregnant mothers have used less than three times during their periods of pregnancy. The study showed that rich women (PR=1.077, 95% CI: 1.029 to 1.127), having access to mass media (PR=1.086, 95% CI: 1.045 to 1.128), having pregnancy complications (PR=1.203, 95% CI: 1.165 to 1.242), secondary education and above (PR=1.112, 95% CI:1.052 to 1.176), husbands’ having secondary education and above (PR=1.085, 95% CI: 1.031 to 1.142) and married (PR=1.187; 95% CI: 1.087 to 1.296), rural women (PR=0.884, 95% CI: 0.846 to 0.924) and women>30 years of age (PR=1.067, 95% CI: 1.024 to 1.111) significantly associated with the ANC service uptake. Conclusion The magnitude of ANC service uptake was low. This low magnitude of ANC service utilisation calls for a need to improve community awareness about maternal health. More importantly, intensive health education is required for pregnant women to have better ANC service uptake and follow-up adherence.